We begin using the Letters and Sounds programme in Nursery by exposing children to a range of everyday sounds and encouraging them to explore noises around them. From Reception, we begin to formally teach the graphemes, blending and segmenting skills required for children to become competent and fluent at decoding. Phonics is taught across Reception and Key Stage 1 on a daily basis to ensure children are mastering these skills.


Phase 1

Showing awareness of rhyme and alliteration

Distinguishing between different sounds in the environment and phonemes

Exploring and experimenting with sounds and words and discriminating speech sounds in words.

Beginning to orally blend and segment phonemes.


Phase 2

Working on: Using common consonants and vowels.  Blending for reading and segmenting for spelling simple CVC words; knowing that words are constructed from phonemes and that phonemes are represented by graphemes.

Letter progression:

Set 1: s, a, t, p

Set 2: i, n, m, d

Set 3: g, o, c, k

Set 4: ck, e, u, r

Set 5: h, b, f, ff, l, ll, ss

Phase 3

Set 6: j, v, w, x

Set 7: y, z, zz, qu

Consonant digraphs

ch, sh, th, ng

Graphemes: ear, air, ure, er, ar, or, ur, ow, oi,

ai, ee, igh, oa, oo

Working on: Reading and spelling a wide range of CVC words using all letters and less frequent consonant digraphs and some long vowel phonemes.

Year 1

Phase 4

Working on: Blending and Segmenting adjacent consonants in words and apply this in spelling and reading.

Phase 5

Working on: Reading phonically decodable two-syllable and three-syllable words.

Working on spelling complex words using phonetically plausible attempts.

Working on: Learning further graphemes for reading

ay, ou, ie, ea, oy, ir, ue, aw, wh, ph, ew, oe, au, a-e, e-e, i-e, o-e, u-e

Working on: Learning alternative ways of pronouncing graphemes and spelling phonemes.

Year 2

Phase 6 / Support for Spelling

Working on: Recognising phonic irregularities; becoming more secure with less common grapheme-phoneme correspondences.

Applying phonic skills and knowledge to recognise and spell an increasing number of complex words.

Spell “ed”, “ing” and plurals correctly.

© St Peter’s C of E Primary School 2021